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Figure 13. Illustration for constructive and destructive interferences. [Source: Wikipedia]

A free GR wave, like a free EM wave, propagates at the speed of light. The formation of standing waves is a key mechanism to stop propagation (Chapter 12). "Binding by synchrony" is another critical mechanism to hold waves in a small region around the brain. Not only is it important for the creation of a geon, but also crucial for the conscious perception of sensory inputs and internal memory.

Synchronization facilitates constructive interference of waves (Figure 13). For two waves with equal amplitude, their constructive interference will double the amplitude. On the other hand, the energy of a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude. This applies to all kinds of waves, including the GR waves. Let E1 be the energy of an individual wave. In the absence of any interaction between two identical waves, the total wave energy, Ew, should be 2E1. Now, the constructive interference will double the amplitude and thus quadruple the energy. Ew becomes 4E1. Since the total energy of an isolated system must be conserved, where does the additional energy come from?

For most types of waves, the additional energy may come from their environment. However, the GR waves have virtually no interaction with surrounding matter. They do not exchange energy with the environment. The most likely energy source is from the GR system itself, which possesses gravitational potential energy, Ep.

Ep exists almost everywhere. Any object near the surface of the Earth should have an Ep, whose value is negative. The more negative Ep is, the stronger the binding (attraction) between an object and the Earth. In Einstein's view, the gravitational binding arises from the distortion of space-time (Chapter 8). Since GR waves are the ripples of space-time, they should have Ep.

Thus, the total energy of a GR system includes both Ew and Ep. As the constructive interference increases Ew, Ep should decrease (more negative) so that the total energy may remain constant. This leads to the conclusion that constructive interference will increase the binding energy between GR waves. For a system of N identical GR waves, the binding energy created by their constructive interference is given by

Binding energy = (N2 - N) E1

In the brain, the ion flow through each ion channel will generate a GR wave. A neuron contains more than 10,000 ion channels. Even if only 1% of channels produce constructive interference of GR waves, their binding energy is already enormously increased (~ 106 times). In addition, a large population of neurons may fire synchronously, creating an even stronger bound state around the brain. Therefore, it is quite possible that the globally synchronized alpha activities may create a gravitational geon.